Basic rules of the track and field events
Athletics is an ideal sport, becausehe is the most natural kind of physical exercise for a person. So what are the rules of competitions in athletics? At first glance, it seems that they do not exist, and there is nothing complicated in this, but is it so? To be "savvy" in this matter, it is necessary to disassemble in detail the stages of the competition and the preparations for them.
Types of disciplines
In fact, running is not all athletics. Competition rules (running, jumping, throwing) are a bit similar, but still different from each other. Since running is the main track and field sport, it is necessary to focus on it.
Cross-country disciplines are practiced not only inprofessional athletes, but also in people who just want to maintain their health and improve their physical condition. Running is the perfect balance between energy costs and stress.
- Sprint. Races for short distances over a distance of 100 to 400 meters.
- Running with obstacles. The distances are also short and usually do not exceed 400 meters.
- Medium distances and long ones. The maximum distance is 3 km. Even sometimes there are long runs with obstacles.
- Cross (cross country).
- Relay race. Happens to different distances. There are even up to 10 km.
- Marathon. Long runs for a distance of 42 km.
It is not necessary to say that, depending on thedistance distances, there are also different requirements for the athlete. If a sprint is conducted, then the athlete should develop coordination and leg muscles, but marathon races require increased endurance.
Basic rules of the track and field events
Depending on the type of running, different rules apply.
- If athletes have to run a short distance, then the path must be straight. Longer distances are made on circular paths.
- If the race is set at a distance of 400meters, then every athlete runs along a strictly allocated strip. If the distance of the race is more than 600 meters, then all athletes start moving on their own track and before the turn, where they are allowed to enter the common track.
- There are other rules of competition in track and field athletics in running. For example, if the distance is more than 1000 meters, then the athletes are allowed a common start, that is, from one track.
- If the rules of the competition provide for a race strictly along the tracks, then their number must clearly coincide with the number of declared athletes.
- If the distance of the race is more than 200 meters, the competition can not participate more than 8 people.
The winner in the competition is the one who will overcome the finish line quickly. If the distances are long, then several intersections of the finish line are fixed.
It would seem that it might be easier to start? But the rules of the competitions in athletics regulate this stage.
If the race is carried out at a distance of not more than 400 meters, then three commands are given:
- "On your marks". Athletes take the starting position.
- "Attention". Athletes take a position for the upcoming jump.
- "March". The movement begins.
If the athlete started to move not during thethe corresponding command, then he receives the first warning. Hearing a warning, the competitor should raise his hand up. It is worth noting that if a warning was made twice, then the athlete is disqualified.
In cross-country all-round competitions, up to three warnings are allowed.
The rules of competitions in athletics explain how athletes should move.
So, if the race provides for movementathletes strictly in strips, then the athlete must run strictly along the selected path. Violation is not considered the fact that if the athlete accidentally moved to a nearby track, but only if he immediately returned to his lane and did not interfere with another participant in the competition.
At corners, the athlete's transition to theadjacent track. If the athlete violates this rule and made several steps at the next track on the left track, he is threatened with disqualification, as this is considered a reduction of the distance. If several steps were taken on the lane to the right, then for such an action of punishment is not provided.
How should the athlete properly finish, also cover the compiled rules of the athletics competitions.
The winner is the participant whothe first crossed the strip. Usually it is imaginary. Cross the strip can be any part of the body, except the head, neck, hands. If the athlete came first and fell, then this result is also counted, but only if he independently crossed the finish line.
It also happens that the line intersectssimultaneously several sportsmen. Sometimes a photo finish is made, but if it does not help to determine the winner, then the judges decide to run over.
If the competitions are held, and the time for themis measured by a stopwatch, then, as a rule, the result is rounded to the tenth, for example, the athlete ran 100 meters in 12.36 seconds, then the result is 12.4 seconds. In this case, for each athlete should be a separate stopwatch, and the winner's time is checked against three stopwatches.
Stage of preparation
Before preparing to run for long distances,it is necessary to carry out certain training. The fact is that races for several kilometers heavily load the heart muscle and blood vessels, so the athlete must be able to correctly distribute their efforts. To long distances you need to prepare for a long time, alternating the pace of training.
The rules of the competitions in athletics can be prepared for athletes independently by their own methods. This stage is not regulated.
Runners for short distances, in the first place, are trained to develop muscles in the legs and hands.
Another separate stage of training requiressprint races. Very short distances are produced only by well-trained athletes who are not only physically well developed, but also know how to concentrate, and have excellent coordination of movements. As a rule, the winners of sprint competitions are experienced runners with great potential.