Biblical themes in the visual arts. Biblical subjects in painting
Almost from the very beginning of humanity itis brought up in parables and songs, which are given in the Bible. Nowadays the Bible has come through many centuries, having overcome many difficulties. It was forbidden to read, destroyed, burned in the fire, but it is still intact. Eighteen centuries have gone into its creation, it was dealt with by about 30 most brilliant authors who lived in different years and ages, in total 66 books of the Bible in different languages are written.
For the school program, children musttalk about biblical themes in the visual arts. IZO at school, therefore, introduces students to the biblical characters and stories described in the book.
Biblical subjects in painting. The great artist Rembrandt
Great world artists used biblicalthemes in the visual arts. Perhaps, the brilliant artist Rembrandt left his mark more brightly. He managed very truthfully and truly sincerely to show the inexhaustible wealth of the inner world of man through biblical subjects in painting. His characters are like ordinary people, contemporaries, among whom the artist lived.
In a simple man, Rembrandt could seeinner integrity, nobility and spiritual greatness. He managed to convey the most beautiful qualities of a person in the picture. His paintings are filled with genuine human passions, a vivid confirmation of this is the picture "The Descent from the Cross" (1634). A well-known picture - "Assyrian, Aman and Esther", written on the biblical myth, which tells how Haman slandered the Jews before the king of Assyria, desiring their death penalty, and Queen Esther managed to uncover the treacherous lie.
In the history of art, it is difficult to find moremysterious and ambiguous painter than Brueghel. He did not leave behind any notes, treatises or articles about his life, nor did he draw self-portraits or portraits of his loved ones. On his canvases, the biblical themes in the visual arts are covered in mystery, the characters do not have memorable faces and all figures are devoid of individuality. In his paintings you can see the Lord and the Holy Mary, Christ and John the Baptist. The canvas "Adoration of the Magi", as it were, is covered with a snow-white veil. Therefore, the paintings are so attractive. Looking at them, I want to solve the mystery.
Braggly characters of Bruegel are depicted amongcontemporaries, they lead their ordinary life on the Flemish city streets and in the countryside. For example, the Savior, burdened with the weight of his cross, is lost among a multitude of ordinary people who do not even suspect that they make their moral choice by looking at God.
The great Caravaggio wrote canvases that amazetheir unusual, they still cause heated debates between art connoisseurs. Despite the fact that during the Renaissance the favorite topic for painting were festive stories, Caravaggio remained true to himself, his tragic themes. On his canvases, people suffer terrible torments and inhuman suffering. Biblical themes in the artist's art can be traced on the canvases "The Crucifixion of St. Peter", which shows the execution of the apostle, crucified upside down on the cross, and "The State of the Coffin" depicting the people's drama.
In his paintings there is always athe commonness of human life. He strongly despised pictures with a fictitious plot, that is, copied out of life, for him such canvases were trinkets and childish amusements. I was sure that only canvases depicting real life can be considered a real art.
In Russia, iconography appeared in the X century, afteras in 988, Russia adopted the Byzantine religion - Christianity. In Byzantium at the time, the iconography and plots of the Old Testament in the fine arts turned into a strict, canonical image system. The worship of the icons became the main part of the dogma and worship.
For a couple of centuries in Russia, the subject ofpainting was only an icon painting, through it a simple people attached to the fine art. Picturing moments from the life of Christ, the Virgin Mary and the apostles, the icon painters tried to express their individual idea of good and evil.
Icon painters always had to followstrict rules, they could not portray a fictitious or fantasy plot. But they were not deprived of the opportunity to create, it was possible to interpret the biblical subjects in the visual arts at their discretion, choosing a different combination of colors. Icons of some icon painters differ among others by their special style of writing.
Icons of Andrei Rublyov
Often the subject of scientific discussions isthe belonging of individual icons to the work of Rublev. The only work Rublev accurately wrote is the icon "Trinity". The authorship of the rest is still in doubt.
The "Trinity" depicts the extraordinary simplicity and"Laconic" of the biblical event. With the greatest skill, the artist singled out precisely those details that help to recreate the presentation of the event - a mountain symbolizing the desert, the chamber of Abraham and the Mamvre's oak. Thanks to this icon, art, simply illustrating the Bible, has turned into a cognizing one. Previously, no one dared to such a reincarnation of the sacred text in the picture.
Old Russian painting has always followed clearlybiblical text, its original task was to recreate the image of the Bible and the Gospel. Rublev managed to disclose the philosophical meaning of biblical scripture.
Plots of the New and Old Testament and Biblical themes in the visual arts
Plots from the New and Old Testament occupy onefrom the main places in Christian painting. While depicting biblical subjects, the artist must transfer the sacred text to the canvas, contribute to understanding, strengthen emotional perception and strengthen faith. Therefore, visual arts and the Bible are closely related, their history changed together.
Christian art is not easy to reproducebiblical subjects. Talented artists created stunning paintings, each of which is unique, due to the fact that they tell in a special way about the biblical story.
Initially, Christianity arose as a new teachingin Judaism, therefore in early Christian art the subjects from the Old Testament prevailed. But then Christianity began to move away from Judaism and artists began to depict stories from the New Testament.
Abraham in the visual arts
One of the characters that unites several faiths (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) is Abraham. In its image several faces are combined:
- the ancestor of the Jews, and through the children of Hagar and Ketura - different Arab tribes;
- the pioneer of Judaism, personifying the ideal of devotion to faith;
- the defender of humanity before God and the hero-warrior.
In the Jewish and Christian notions there isthe concept of "Abraham's bosom" is a special other-worldly place for the repose of the dead righteous. In the painting depict Abraham sitting on his knees, in his bosom or in the belly sit the souls of believers in the form of children. This can be seen on the canvases "Golden Gate", "Prince's Portal".
Sacrifice of Isaac
But the most favorite subject related to Abraham is sacrifice.
Biblical scriptures tell how GodHe asked Abraham to burn his son Isaac to prove his loyalty. The father built an altar on Mount Moriah, and at the last moment of the sacrifice of Isaac an angel appeared to them and stopped him. Instead of a child, a lamb was burnt.
Such a dramatic episode leads to deep reflection on God's justice.
Biblical themes in the visual artsalways attracted artists. Despite the fact that the biblical stories have long been in the past, painters manage to reflect through them the modern reality of life.