Clinical psychology is, first of all,specialty of the broadest profile. It is of an intersectoral nature and participates in solving a whole range of tasks in the systems of public education, health care and social assistance to the population. The clinical psychologist works to increase the psychological resources, as well as the adaptive capabilities of people. In addition, it is aimed at the prevention and overcoming of all kinds of ailments, the harmonization of mental development, psychological rehabilitation and health protection.
The term "clinical psychology" in Russia is longtime was replaced by "medical psychology", they defined the same field of activity. But in 1990 it was necessary to bring the Russian educational program in line with international standards. Within the framework of this, a specialty was named under the name "clinical psychology". Unlike what happens in our country, in the practice of other nations, medical psychology denotes a narrower sphere of psychology of interaction between the patient and the therapist or doctor. But clinical psychology is a holistic practical and scientific psychological discipline.
It is used not only in medicine, but also in a variety of social, educational, consultative institutions that serve people with psychological problems and developmental anomalies.
The tasks of clinical psychology are diverse. Firstly, it is designed to study the influence of psychosocial and psychological factors on the development of personal and behavioral disorders in people, their correction and prevention. Secondly, she studies the specifics and nature of any violations in the development of the psyche of a particular person. Thirdly, she examines how abnormalities and disorders in physical and mental development affect the behavior and personality of people. Fourthly, she studies the nature of the relationship with the immediate environment of the abnormal person. Fifthly, she studies and creates various psychological methods of influencing the human psyche in preventive and corrective purposes.
The subject of this scientific and practical disciplineare the mental manifestations of disorders, their influence on the psyche, the role of the psyche itself in their occurrence, flow, and prevention. In addition, the subject of this discipline are also violations of the development of the psyche, the development of all possible principles and methods of research in the clinic, methods and psychotherapy.
The main section of clinical psychology ispathopsychology. She deals with such issues as violations of the human psyche, disorders of an adequate perception of the surrounding world due to CNS lesions. She also studies the creation of methods for the correction and treatment of such diseases.
In clinical psychology, there is a sectionNeuropsychology. This discipline studies the role of the brain and the central nervous system in various mental processes. The section of psychosomatics examines all kinds of problems of people who are sick with somatic disorders. This means that due to the influence of the psychological factor in humans, there are various diseases of internal organs, oncology and so on. There are also in clinical psychology and such sections as psychiatry and psychological correction.
Methods of clinical psychology allowdifferentiate, objectify and qualify a variety of pathology and norms. The choice of a particular method depends on what task the psychologist is facing, what the mental state of the individual patient is, and so on. This is a conversation, observation, study of products of creativity. They also include psychophysiological methods, anamnestic, biographical and experimental psychological methods.