How did the universe appear?
In the article we will consider several theories trying to answer the question of how the universe appeared. Let's start with the most modern, which was developed just a few years ago and was called the “inflation theory”, and then we look at the theories that were popular earlier and that have not lost their followers to this day.
How did the universe: the modern view
Today, it is considered that at the very beginning there was a period that scientists called “inflation”. Let's see what the essence of the theory of inflation, which was developed at the very end of the last XX century. Under this scenario, the Universe began to emerge from a state of vacuum, which was devoid of any radiation or substance. It is assumed that some hypothetical field (which scientists called inflaton) began to fill in all the space without exception and in any time interval could take completely different values in absolutely any spatial domains. In this case, nothing happened until a uniform configuration of the inflaton field of 10-33cm.Immediately after this, this area of space began to increase incredibly quickly, and the energy of the inflaton field began to tend to a minimum.
How did the Big Bang happen
At the end of the so-called inflation period, our Universe reached a size of about 1 cm in diameter, and in the inflaton field itself there was a minimum of potential energy. And at this very moment the colossal kinetic energy accumulated in this small Universe began to transform into scattering elementary particles, as a result of which the very well-known Big Bang occurred. Often, inflation, as well as the Big Bang that follows, is compared with the situation when a snowball begins to roll down the mountain. Initially, it is small, but gradually new layers of snow stick to it, it begins to grow in size, and then it simply falls into the abyss, but it breaks into many pieces from the blow, which fly away in all directions. It is necessary to say that the described process may turn out to be far from single, and in case of its repetition other universes will arise, their properties may well differ from ours.Such a distinction is quite acceptable, because each “snowball”, in fact, has its own trajectory, as well as its own size. In addition, he falls in different places of the abyss.
Where did the universe come from: other theories
Note that it is now customary to talk about a combination of different universes, one of which we can observe from the inside. It is possible that other universes were somewhat less fortunate (or more - it depends on how you look) than ours, and there is no life there, and accordingly, there are no observers either. And of course, the inflationary theory of how the universe was formed is far from the only one even among scientists. Her critics can not accept the emergence of "something" in fact from "nothing." Alternative variants are the quantum model of the Universe and the model of the oscillations of the Universe. The latter assumes that our Universe exists forever, at the same time it is contracting, then expanding into different periods of time, and each cycle is accompanied by a giant explosion. As for the quantum model of the creation of the Universe, the followers of this theory believe that elementary particles may well appear and disappear in a vacuum, while completely spontaneously, which is the main cause not only of the appearance of the Universe, but of matter in general.The vacuum itself is neutral, so it has neither charge, nor mass, nor any other characteristics. However, it is likely that a certain matrix is contained in a vacuum, a kind of potential, in accordance with which both matter and radiation are created.
Religion point of view
Of course, it is quite possible to choose the traditional option, namely, to believe that the World was created by God. Moreover, no matter how strange it may seem, this theory also seems logical to some scholars and has a right to exist, for how can there be a creation without a Creator? Another thing that each of us understands by God.
There is still no exact answer to the question of how the universe originated, and, frankly speaking, it is unlikely to be. Indeed, just as atoms cannot comprehend the structure created by them, so a part of the Universe cannot stand above the latter in order to embrace and cognize it. Therefore, you can accept the theory that is closer to you personally.