How to make a firework?
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In fact, the Chinese invented gunpowder in order to make fireworks, and not to use it for military purposes. A variety of pyrotechnics has long been used in the Eastern tradition to ward off evil spirits.
Nowadays, fireworks are used during various celebrations, as a good fireworks can decorate any holiday - from the new year to the birthday. Therefore it is necessary to figure out how to make the most fireworks.
To make fireworks, you need to learn how to make:
First you need to make liners. They are divided into two types:
- thin-walled, which are burned with fireworks. Used for low power formulations.
- thick-walled. These liners do not burn when burning fireworks. Use them for strong compositions and difficult salutes.
To create them we need:
- wooden cylinders of different diameters with a handle attached to them. Oak is best suited.The tree should be well polished, the optimum diameter of the rods from 4 to 10 mm. Such rods are called warriors;
- parchment or yellow wrapping paper;
- glue (in this case, you can take the usual flour paste);
- a small sheet of glass;
- strong thread or household rope.
We turn directly to the manufacture of thin-walled shells:
- Sprinkle the wooden rod with talcum powder so that it can be easily removed from the finished sleeve.
- Coat the outer surface of the paper with paste.
- On the glass we begin to roll the paper onto the rod.
- The knurling can be done either with a palm (in the case of small sleeves), or with a flat board.
- Make sure that the first turn of the lungs is ideally even, otherwise the paper will roll with ledges and have to throw the sleeve.
- We cut the liner blank to the length we need.
- We overtighten one end of the liner with a rope or a strong thread. Do not forget to leave space for the wick. To do this, take a wooden cylinder on one side of which a nail is hammered in and tighten the end of the sleeve around the nail.
- The last stage of the liner manufacturing is drying. It is possible to dry the liner in the room, putting them on the sticks.
Thick-walled paper tube
The thick-walled paper tube is made in exactly the same way and from the same materials. Only paper will need more, since the walls of the liner should be thicker. Similarly, navoyniki will be required massively, from 10 to 25 mm. Ideally, the thickness of the liner walls is 1/3 of its internal diameter.
Now we need to make compositions that, in fact, will explode. It is best to make gunpowder for our fireworks.
The first type of powder, which is also called "pulp", is made from the following ingredients:
- potassium nitrate;
Also, for the manufacture of gunpowder, we need accurate kitchen scales.
- First, we take 750 grams of potash nitrate, 125 grams of coal and 125 grams of sulfur.
- All substances must be ground into flour.
- Mix all three components on a sheet of paper. "Pulp" is ready.
The second type of powder that can be made at home is granular powder. It is made from the same components, but in different proportions. At the same time, all the components must be crushed coarsely, the grains should be the size of a small salt crystal.
- Mix 780 g of potassium nitrate, 120 g of coal and 100 g of sulfur.
- Granular powder ready.
This type of powder is made of bertolet salt. For this we need:
- bertolet salt;
- Mix 20 parts by weight of bertolet salt, 5 weight parts of coal and 1 weight part of gum.
- Thoroughly grind the resulting powder.
- We roll the resulting mass into flat cakes and grind them.
- Dry the resulting seeds.
This compound should be handled with care, it explodes easily when hit and ignites by strong friction.
We now turn to stuffing liners and mixing different compositions. The packing is done as follows:
- Composition, which will fill the sleeve, you need to moisten with a small amount of wine alcohol to such an extent that the mass can be rolled into a ball. By the hands while the mixture should not stick.This is done for security purposes.
- The sleeve is installed vertically and rigidly fastened.
- Pour the composition in small portions.
- Each serving is thoroughly rammed.
- Fill the sleeve 2 cm below the top edge.
- Seal the top edge of the sleeve. Clay is well suited for this.
- We do not keep filled cartridges at home.To do this, you need a separate dry room.
Now we need to make a wick to the fireworks. For this you need to prepare:
- cotton thread;
- fine powder ("pulp");
- wine alcohol;
- starch paste.
- Powder mix in containers with alcohol to obtain slurry.
- Add the paste and mix thoroughly.
- Twist together a few threads in order to get a wick.
- Dip the resulting wicks in a bowl for several hours.
- Dry the wicks. Depending on the humidity of the air, this will take from 3 days to 2 weeks.
Making a salute
The easiest option - to make a sparkler. For red light you will need:
- sulfur antimony - 6.5 parts by weight;
- coal - 3 weight parts;
- sulfur - 16 weight parts;
- nitrostrontium salt - 64.5 parts by weight;
- bertolet salt - 10 weight parts.
When everything is ready, gently mix the composition. You can burn it by pouring it onto a metal strip or stuffing it into a thin-walled sleeve.
Salute "Bee Swarm"
Consider how to make the most salute more difficult, for example, "Bee Swarm".
- First, prepare a few small sleeves and fill them with gunpowder.
- Then we take a large thick-walled sleeve and fill it with a sparkling composition.
- In the walls of a large liner make several holes at different heights.
- In small sleeves we make one hole at the bottom.
- We glue small sleeves to the outer wall of a large one at different heights.
- With a wick we connect a hole in a small sleeve and a large sleeve. They will light up alternately and will create a bee swarm effect.
Before you get to work, you need to learn a few necessary rules:
- All substances must be dried, they must be dry and must be clean.
- If the composition contains bertolet salt, it is necessary to determine the degree of its safety. It is necessary to wet the composition with water and put in a warm place. If the composition has changed color or began to smell strongly - it is dangerous, you can never use it.
- Potassium nitrate is needed only in powder form. Pour boiling water over it (1/4 of the weight of saltpeter), after which, stirring constantly, evaporate the composition.
- Sulfur must be pure, no acids.
- Gunpowder, as a rule, does not ignite spontaneously, but only if the temperature is below 100 degrees.
- Barium, copper, lead, antimony salts are extremely dangerous when ingested.At the same time, salts of potassium and sodium, gum, ammonia, sulfur, etc., are absolutely harmless.
- For the manufacture of colored compositions, it is necessary to use each time new tools and paper on which they are mixed. Otherwise impurities will spoil everything.
- The order of filling the mixture in the sleeve is very important. When using each particular composition, carefully read the instructions. For example, if you first pour potassium chlorate, and then, for example, sulfur, the mixture will immediately explode. But if the composition, where sulfur is already present, is poured at the very end of potassium chate, then the substances will not react.
- When mixing the formulations do not rub, and pour on a sheet of paper.
- We recommend to pass all structures through a hair sieve.
- If fine powder is mixed with large, then small pieces are first poured onto the paper and only then large pieces are poured.
- For the manufacture of color composition with sparks take cast iron sawdust or coal.