How to make a morphological analysis of a word?
When learning Russian, each student canto face the need to perform a morphological analysis of the word, since this is part of the school curriculum. This method includes the whole scheme, which must be observed when parsing a word related to a particular part of speech. But how to perform the morphological analysis of the word correctly, and what should be taken into account? Let's talk about this in more detail.
Analysis of words as part of speech - what is it?
Morphological analysis is an analysisa word relating to a certain part of speech, taking into account all the features and context in which it is used. Morphological analysis of the word includes a number of points, which are different depending on which part of the speech the analyzed word belongs to.
The first step to the task is todefinition of a part of speech. Next, you must correctly specify the initial form and choose an algorithm, according to which the word will be understood. It is also important to remember that the first categories are permanent categories (genus, digit, conjugation), and then changed (number, case, time).
The parsing of the noun
The analysis of the word begins with the fact that it is put ininitial form. This form in nouns is the nominative case of the singular. For example, the word "cheese" needs to be replaced with "cheese" to see its initial form. Next it is necessary to determine whether the noun is a common or noun. The next item will be the category "animate-inanimate". Living beings always belong to the first, and objects - to the second.
Next, we indicate the genus, which in Russianrepresented by men, women and middle. After this, the word must be attributed to this or that type of declension. There are three of them in Russian. The first words are female and masculine, having an ending - a, - I (dad, history, book); to the second - masculine nouns without endings (sword, bell) and middle genus with endings -o, -e (field, tree), and to the third - feminine nouns with a soft consonant sound at the end (night, oven, ink).
Then it is necessary to indicate the case of the noun(nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental or prepositional). The last point is the role of this part of speech in the context. The noun may be the main or secondary member of the sentence.
An example of parsing a noun as part of a speech
In the sentence "There was a girl on the bench," there are two nouns. Let's analyze one of them - "bench".
- The initial form of the noun is a bench.
- The nominal.
- The first decline.
Morphological analysis of the adjective
Like a noun, this part of speech must be put in the initial form. For the name of the adjective, this is the masculine gender, the singular, the nominative.
Next, you need to determine the discharge of this partspeech. Adjective can be qualitative, relative or possessive. To distinguish the qualitative from the relative is very simple: the first always has the degree of comparison (beautiful - more beautiful - the most beautiful). The possessive adjective differs from the others in that it answers the question "whose?" (Paternal, fox).
If the adjective is qualitative, then it is necessarydetermine whether it is full or short, and also indicate the degree of comparison. Full adjectives usually have endings: -y, -y, -oy, -ha, -ye, -yaya (tall, thin, sincere). The degree of comparison can be positive (cute), comparative (milder) and excellent (dearest).
Next, the gender, number and case of the adjective are determined. The last point is the role of this part of speech in this sentence. Most often, the adjective is a definition.
Morphological analysis of the numerals
Analyzing the numerals, it is important to put it ininitial form. This is easy to do, since the ordinal numbers in the form coincide with the adjectives. Accordingly, the initial form for them - masculine gender, singular, nominative. Quantitative numerals have a form that answers the question "how much?".
Next, find out whether a simple or composite isnumeral. As a rule, simple numerals represent one word, and compound ones - two or more. The discharge, gender, number and case are then determined. The final part of the analysis of the word is the definition of the syntactic role in the sentence. Quantitative numerals are part of a complex subject or predicate, while ordinal numerals are part of a complex subject or predicate, while ordinal numerals are part of a complex subject or predicate;
How to make verb analysis?
Starting the analysis of the verb, it is necessary to put it in the initial form. In a verb, this form is called an infinitive, which answers the question "what to do?", "What to do?".
Then you need to determine whether the return orthe verb is irrevocable. The presence of postfix -a indicates that the verb is returnable (to gather, bite). Transitivity and intransitivity, which also need to be indicated in morphological analysis, is related to the relationship between the subject and the object of action. As a rule, this is a combination of the verb with the noun, standing in the accusative case. The presence or absence of a preposition indicates the transitivity of the verb ("I'm reading a book" - a transitive one, "I'm going to school" - intransitive).
A verb can also be perfect (what to do?) and imperfect (what to do?) kind. Usually an indication of the action performed indicates that the verb is perfect. It is also necessary to determine to which of the two conjugations the analyzed word belongs. The conjugation is determined at the end of the verb.
The time category shows when it was,the action is or will be executed. Time can only be determined by the verbs in the indicative mood. Next, we determine the gender, number and person, if this is possible.
The last point is the definition of the function of this part of speech in the sentence. Most often the verb acts as a predicate, but it can also be a subject.
Morphological analysis of the sacrament
Because the participle has the signs of the verb andthe order of analysis has almost the same points as the above parts of speech. The analysis begins with the definition of the initial form. It, as a rule, coincides with the adjective. Next, you need to find out the deposit. If the action is carried out by the subject, this is a valid deposit. When it is aimed at an object, it is a passive voice. For example, "offending" - the real voice, "offended" - passive.
As in the case of the verb, it is important to definetime, form, recurrence, non-return. From the adjective this part of the speech borrowed gender, number and case. The participles relating to the passive voice can also be complete or concise.
The last point is the role of the participle in the sentence. Most often it is a definition.
The analysis of gerunds as part of speech
Since the gerundive is a special formverb, it must be analyzed, based on the characteristics inherent in this part of speech. Since the gerundive does not change, the current form is already the initial form. Next, you need to find out what kind of word the word belongs to. The role of gerunds in the sentence is the final stage of the morphological analysis of the word. As a rule, it fulfills the function of circumstance, but it can adjoin to other members of the sentence.
The analysis of the adverb as part of speech
Analyzing this part of the speech, it should be noted,that the adverb does not change. This means that categories of gender, declensions, conjugations, faces, etc. are absent. In the adverb, a discharge by value is distinguished, as well as the degree of comparison, for example, "high - higher". The syntactic role usually assumes that this part of speech is a circumstance.
Now each student will know how to make a morphological analysis of the word. Also you can see another article from our website on a similar topic: What is morphological analysis.