Mobility is the movement of the subject within the social system
The society is not staticsystem, it is constantly changing, is in dynamics. Consequently, the structural elements of society, that is, people, are also dynamically changing. A person fulfills various social roles throughout his life, and in the process of the development of society, roles, statuses, and people occupying them change. This phenomenon was called "social mobility". This concept was carefully investigated and described by the author of the term Pitirim Sorokin.
The life of an individual is inextricably linked withthe social space in which he lives. The theory of mobility describes the movement of a social subject within this space, which is something like the universe. The position of the individual in the structure of the society at the moment can be determined using some "reference points". These reference points imply a person's relationship to social groups, the relationship of these groups with each other.In other words, the social position of the subjectis determined by his family status, citizenship, nationality, religiosity, professional affiliation, etc. Thus, social mobility is any movement of an individual in the specified social positions. This theory considers the movement not only of a person in the social social system. Any object of social structure, values can move in social space.
Since mobility is a movement withinsocial space, then there are different directions of these displacements or coordinates. In this regard, the following types of mobility are distinguished: horizontal and vertical. Mobility in the horizontal plane is a transition between social positions within the boundaries of one social level. Example: change of religion.Vertical mobility involves a shiftsocial status; the social level of the subject is replaced by a higher or a lower one. Improving the status is an upward mobility (the transition of the military to a higher rank); its deterioration is descending (deduction from the university). Mobility in the vertical plane can be individual and group. In addition, mobility is:
- Intra-generational or intra-generational, that is, changes in the social structure occur within a certain age level;
- intergenerational or intergenerational mobility - these are social changes in different age categories.
By what ways and by what means,social structures are social mobility? The mobility channels are also called "elevators". They include certain social institutions, namely the church, the army, the family, educational institutions, professional and political organizations and, of course, the media. Thus, the theory of social mobility affects all levels of society, all social structures. By regulating the deterioration or improvement of the social status of the subject, the system thereby stimulates the desired activities of groups and individuals.