Shelters are anti-radiation. Means of collective and individual protection in case of radiation accidents
Radiation monitoring carried out onindustrial enterprises and nuclear power plants, does not exclude the possibility of a catastrophe. Therefore, everyone needs to know how to protect their life and health in this situation. Our article contains basic information on this issue.
What is a PRI
In the event of a radiation catastrophespecial shelters are used - shelters are anti-radiation (abbreviated - PRU). They serve to protect the population from ionizing radiation, which are observed when the terrain is contaminated with radiation. In addition, they are used to protect against penetrating radiation (including neutron flux), light radiation, shock wave (partially), contact with human clothes and skin of poisonous, radioactive substances, as well as biological (bacterial) agents.
The Ministry of Emergency Situations shall periodically inspect the checkpoint. Moscow, for example, has several thousand shelters, some of them are surrendered to commercial organizations. In order to control at the level of enterprises, districts and districts where they are located, special commissions are created. They include representatives of various executive bodies, BTI and the Ministry of Emergencies. Moscow is the capital of our country, so the state of the RDU in it is often checked. It is necessary to ensure that they do not violate the tightness.
Materials and premises for the PRI
Radiation shelters most oftenarranged in the basement floors of various buildings. Sometimes prefabricated freestanding shelters can be constructed. For this purpose, industrial building materials such as bricks, prefabricated reinforced concrete elements, rolled products, as well as local materials (stones, wood, etc.) are used. The thickness of the walls should be sufficient to protect it. Than they are thicker, the more reliable the shelter will be. In treeless places, if there are no other building materials, it is possible to build PRU from fascia, which is made from cane, brushwood, straw, cane, sunflower, corn stalks.
All recessed premises suitable for the purposeprotection, can be adapted under the shelter of anti-radiation. These are cellars, cellars, caves, underground workings, vegetable stores. Suitable and ground buildings, the walls of which are made of materials that have protective properties. The area of the room can be different.
To improve the protective properties of the windowopenings, as well as additional doorways. On the ceilings pour a layer of soil. If necessary, on the outside of the protruding above the earth surface of the walls make a subsoil.
Sealing is achieved by careful sealingholes, cracks and cracks in the ceiling and walls, at the junction of door and window openings, the entry of water pipes and heating pipes. It also provides for fitting doors, which should be furred with felt, and seal the seal with a roller of felt or some other dense soft cloth.
If the area of the room is small, airingSuch shelters, designed to accommodate no more than 30 people, occur naturally through the exhaust and supply ducts. The first to create traction is about 1.5-2 m higher than the second. In addition, they build canopies on ventilating boxes (their outer terminals). At the input, densely fitted dampers are made, with the threat of falling radioactive fallout being closed.
If the room that adapts toshelter, is not equipped with sewerage and running water, water tanks are put in it. It should be approximately 3-4 liters per person per day. A toilet with a cesspool or a portable container is also being built. Shelters, benches or lari intended for food are made in shelter. The room is lit either by portable electric lights or from an external power grid.
Protective properties of anti-radiation sheltersare different. To measure them, an indicator such as the protection factor is used. He talks about how many times this shelter reduces the dose of radiation. This factor is influenced by a number of factors: the thickness of the walls, the material from which they are made, the degree of hermetic sealing, etc. Extension of the internal premises or basement floors of buildings can increase their protective properties by several tens or even hundreds of times. For example, in the equipped cellars of houses made of wood, the protection factor reaches 100, and in stone - 1000. About 7-12 times the radiation of unequipped cellars weakens, and the equipped ones reduce its impact by 350-400 times. So, shelters of the simplest type have a low coefficient of protection, and more reliable - higher.
How to behave in shelters
There are certain rules of conduct in the field distributor. Radiation shelters are filled quickly and organized. First of all, children, elderly people and women with children are passed through the shelter. They are placed in places reserved for them. A person in a shelter should take a food stock with him for two days (in a plastic bag). Also, he must have documents, toilet accessories, personal protective equipment (we'll talk about them later) and a minimum of personal belongings.
Strongly smelling and flammable substancesbring in the PRU is prohibited. Also, you should not bring your pets with you, take bulky things. You can not walk around the rooms unnecessarily. Do not need to light homemade lamps, candles, kerosene lamps without permission. People who are in hiding, must comply with all the instructions and requirements of the commander.
The withdrawal from the shelter is carried out either byneed, or after the "End" signal. If the main outputs are blocked, it is carried out via the emergency exit. In the absence of the latter, measures should be taken to clear the obstruction and open the doors by the people in the shelter.
How to protect yourself from radiation?
All sources of radiation carry a highdanger. Despite this, there are ways to protect against radiation. The purpose of the anti-radiation shelter is to minimize the negative effects of radiation. However, it can not completely eliminate the harmful effects. It must be remembered that there are other ways to protect yourself from it. They can be divided into 3 types: distance, time and personal protective equipment. We briefly review each of them.
The essence of this method of protection is tomaximally shorten the period of stay of a person near the source of radiation. Harm to our health the more, the longer we are near the source of radiation. This method of protection was used, in particular, in the liquidation of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The liquidators of the consequences were given only a few minutes to complete their work and return to safe territory. To very sad consequences results the excess of time during which one can be in the affected area. The level of irradiation increases, as a result of which radiation sickness can develop.
When an object is found that isa source of radiation that poses a danger to human health and life, it is necessary to move away from it to a distance where the radiation and radiation background do not exceed the permissible standards. In addition, the radiation source can be taken out for burial or placed in a safe area.
Individual protection means
Sometimes it is necessary to perform some kind ofactivities in places with an increased radiation background. For example, this can not be avoided during the elimination of the consequences of an accident at a nuclear power plant or when working in various industrial enterprises in which radiation sources are available. In such zones, permanent radiation monitoring should be carried out. There you can not be without means of protection. This is dangerous for health and even for human life. For such cases, personal protective equipment was created from radiation. These are screens of materials that hold back certain types of radiation. In addition, personal protective equipment includes overalls.
There are several types of radiation in dependenceon the charge and nature of the radiation particles. Therefore, the protective equipment is made of various materials, which allow to resist certain types of radiation.
In order to protect yourself from radiationalpha, you can wear rubber gloves, a normal respirator or use a "barrier" of paper. If beta radiation predominates, you will need a screen made of a thin sheet of aluminum, glass or plexiglas. An ordinary respirator is not able to protect the human respiratory system from this type of radiation. In this case, you need a gas mask.
From gamma radiation to protect yourself the most difficult. Uniforms that are protected against this type of radiation must be made of steel, cast iron, lead, tungsten or other metals having a large mass. During the work at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, clothes made of lead were used.
Various kinds of barriers from polyethylene, polymers and even water can protect you from harm caused by exposure to neutron particles.
Food additives and products
Nutritional supplements are very often used forprotection against radiation in conjunction with screens and overalls. They need to be taken inside either before entering the radiation zone, or afterwards. In many cases, they help reduce the negative impact of radionuclides on the human body.
Some foods also contribute toreduce the harmful effects of radiation. Among them, wheat, white bread, nuts and radish should be noted. To a small extent, these products can reduce the effects of radiation on humans due to the presence of selenium in them, which prevents the appearance of tumors caused, among other things, by radiation exposure. In the fight against it, the bioadditives made on the basis of algae (chlorella, laminaria) are also very good. Rid of the body of radioactive nuclides, penetrated into it, in part capable of even garlic and onions.
"Ginseng root" is an effective plantpreparation against radiation. It is sold in every pharmacy. It should be used in quantities of 40-50 drops twice before meals. In addition, reduce the concentration of radionuclides in the human body helps extract eleutherococcus. It should be consumed in the amount of 0,25-0,5 teaspoon per day with tea in the morning and at lunch. To protect against radiation, medinitsa, zamaniha and levzeya are useful, which are also sold at pharmacies.
It should be noted that no drug iscan completely eliminate the harmful effects of radiation. The best way to protect against it is to avoid contact with contaminated objects and leave places that have an increased radioactive background as soon as possible. Vaults and anti-radiation shelters will help to significantly reduce the negative impact of radiation in the event that it is impossible to leave a dangerous place.