The capital of the Sakhalin region: general information, history and interesting facts
The unique part of Russia, its easternmostterritory, - the Sakhalin area. The capital, the city of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, is located on the largest island in the region and is located at a distance of 6660 km from Moscow. Let's talk about the features of the region and its capital, how it lives there.
Sakhalin Region, whose geography is unique,is the only Russian region located entirely on the islands. It consists of the island of Sakhalin, two ridges of the Kuriles, the islands of Tyuleny and Moneron. The region borders on the Khabarovsk and Kamchatka Krai, as well as with Japan. The coasts of the islands of the region are washed by the waters of the Pacific Ocean, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan. The total area of the region is 87 thousand square meters. km. The islands on which the area extends have a volcanic-tectonic origin and therefore their relief is very uneven. Almost all banks of the islands are rocky, steep, only a few bays have a low, gentle slope to the water. The region retains a high seismic activity, so the relief and outlines of the islands continue to change. The nature of the Sakhalin Region is severe, but diverse. There are many rivers and lakes here, almost 1.5 thousand different plants grow, many native animals such as bear, musk deer, hare, fox, sable and others live.
History of settlement
Until the 12th century, the history of the territories that todayoccupies the Sakhalin region, is covered in mystery. In the 12th century, for the first time, the Japanese landed here from Hokkaido and found indigenous settlements there: the Ainu and the Nivkh. Once, about 60 thousand years ago, Sakhalin had a land connection with the mainland and the island of Hokkaido. But the ocean swallowed up this territory, and about 10 thousand years ago the islands were cut off from the "big earth". Here the Japanese, Mongols and Chinese sailed sometimes, but they did not stay here, the conditions were too harsh. In the 13th century, the Mongols undertook a number of attempts to conquer these lands, they eventually succeeded in placing their garrisons here. European expeditions sail past the islands occasionally. In the 17th century, the Japanese made their first attempts to penetrate Sakhalin, they make the first maps of the islands. At the same time, the first Russian expeditions are sent here.
At the end of the 17th century Sakhalin fell under the protectorateManchuria, and the Russian government has to come to terms with this state of affairs. In the late 18th - early 19th centuries, the Russian Empire was once again undertaking a number of attempts to seize the islands: from diplomatic negotiations to military conflicts. In 1850, G. Nevelsky hoisted the Russian flag over Sakhalin. At the end of the 19th century the largest empire of the empire was built here, in 1882 the future capital of the Sakhalin region appeared - then the village of Vladimirovka. In 1904, the Japanese seized Sakhalin, and as a result of the Russo-Japanese War, Russia lost part of the territory of the Sakhalin region. Only after the Second World War, Russia managed to regain these lands. And today the hidden conflict between Russia and Japan continues from behind the Kuril Islands.
The Sakhalin Region is located in the temperate zonemonsoon climate. The average annual temperature is minus 4 degrees. In the north of the region the climate is more severe, with a long wet winter and a short summer. In the south, where the capital of the Sakhalin region is located, the winter is milder, and in summer the air warms up to 15-19 degrees Celsius. Winter in the region is snowy, with a lot of snowstorms, it lasts from late November to early April. A cool summer begins in June and ends in August. Long transitional periods in the spring and autumn are also typical for the region. Here there is a lot of precipitation (about 900 mm per year) in all seasons, the driest month is January. The proximity of the cold Sea of Okhotsk does not allow the air in the region to get very warm, therefore it is always colder here than in other regions at the same latitudes.
Features of life on Sakhalin
Official statistics provide general information on theSakhalin region, which say that the region is in the stage of economic growth, that there are good prospects for development here. But local residents say that living on Sakhalin is not easy. The island position and severe climate stipulate that almost all goods are imported, and this immediately reflects on their price. The climate with unaccustomedness may seem very bad, although the indigenous population says that it has its advantages. For example, summer is perceived as a special value, so he is able to rejoice here. The main advantage of the region is an unprecedented beauty of nature, excellent fishing, hunting. The Sakhalin region, whose cities and districts are in the zone of state subsidies, has a fairly high standard of living, although the prices here are, of course, rather big. The southern part of the region provides quite comfortable, albeit specific, living conditions. But the north of the region is a place only for fans of extreme sports.
In 2011, the government of the Sakhalin Oblastapproved a new division of the region into districts. In total 17 districts, 1 city of regional subordination, 2 cities of regional importance, and one urban-type settlement and rural district are allotted here. In total in the area of 15 cities, 5 urban settlements and 242 villages.
The region is governed by the Sakhalinregion, which is headed by the governor. It is the supreme executive authority. Legislative power belongs to the Sakhalin regional Duma. Local residents note that administrative management is felt only in cities, in the interior of the region and especially in the north people live almost autonomously. This is due to the fact that some localities are in such hard-to-reach places that no power there simply can not get.
The capital of the Sakhalin region is located onsouth-east of the main island, 25 km from the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. Here live almost 200 thousand people, the density of the population is 1.1 thousand people. per sq. m. km, while in the region this figure is 5, 5 people per square meter. km. The capital of the Sakhalin region Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk is the largest city in the region and its economic center. The city includes several villages, the total area of the district is almost 1000 square meters. km. The main industrial and commercial companies of the region are concentrated in the city. It is here that locals can find work, things are bad in other parts of the region with workplaces. The cost of apartments in the capital of the region is high, because the construction is poor. All this leads to the fact that young people often prefer to go to the mainland.
Sakhalin is a unique territory, it is visited byreal legends. In reality, this is the largest island that belongs to Russia. In Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and some other cities you can see houses of Japanese construction. The city is dominated by Japanese cars, the most popular model is the SUV. Sakhalin can be reached only by air or water. In winter, there are periods when there is no transport connection with the islands.