Types of sand, their characteristics, extraction and application
Sand is a sedimentary rockand artificial material, which has in the composition of the rock fraction. Quite often it consists of mineral quartz, which is a substance called silicon dioxide. When it comes to natural sand, it is a loose mixture, the grain fraction of which reaches 5 mm.
Classification of the destruction of rocks
This material is formed during the destruction of rock hard rocks. Depending on what the conditions of accumulation are, sands can be:
When the material arises in the process of activity of water bodies and streams, its elements will have a rounded rounded shape.
The main varieties of sand and the characteristics of their extraction
Today, almost all types of sand are usedman in different fields of activity and industry. River sand - a building mix, which is extracted from the riverbed. This material has a rather high degree of purification, which is why there are no small stones, impurities of clay content and foreign inclusions in the structure.
Career sand is extracted by washing with water inhuge volume, as a result it is possible to get rid of the dusty particles of clay. Considering the types of sand, you can find quarry sand, which is purified during extraction from a large fraction of stones. This material is fairly widespread in the manufacture of solutions that go to the laying of foundations and the implementation of plastering works. You can find career sown sand in asphalt mixtures.
Building sand must comply with GOST8736-2014, according to which the material is a loose inorganic mixture of coarse-grained grains, whose size reaches 5 mm. The density of the material is 1300 kg / m3. Formed building sand with naturaldestruction of rocky rocks, it is extracted by methods of development of sandy-gravel and sand deposits without and with the use of concentrating equipment.
The main types of sand also include artificial heavy sand, which has the appearance of a loose mixture obtained by mechanical crushing of rocks, among which are:
- pumice stone;
Features of artificial sand
They can have a different origin and density. If we compare the grains of this sand with grains of natural origin, the first ones have an acute-angled shape and a rough surface. Artificial sands are used as fillers for the preparation of plasters and decorative mortars. As a result, it is possible to achieve a tangible texture of the upper layer on the outer surfaces.
This material can become part of any layerplaster, because the fractionality of the grains may be different, depending on the variety of the solution. Usually the grain size is assumed to be equal to the size of natural sands. When making artificial sand, recycled coal, rock, and unburned particles, in which the sulfur content is low, are taken into processing.
Material characteristics will depend on the qualitythe cover layer. In the manufacture of decorative plaster from such sand, for the economy can additionally be added crushed stone, powder of this breed or crumb, from this quality of texture even wins.
Application and characteristics of sea sand
Sea sand can be used whenproduction of building mixtures, manufacturing of aggregates, plastering, laying of road bases, construction of fences and fences, as a filler for building grouts and dyes. The production of such sand is regulated by GOST 8736-93.
Fractions can vary from 2.5 to 3.5 Mk, which determines the size modulus. The density of grain is equal to the limit of 2 to 2.8 g / cm3. In the sea sand should be completely absentextraneous impurities, but in some fractions one can find a small content of clay and dust particles. Sea sand is characterized by labor-intensive production, which makes its cost higher than the mine pit.
Characteristics and cost of quarry sand
The main feature of quarry sand is theabsence of impurities and frequency. The washing quarry material has the following characteristics: a fraction ranging from 1.5 to 5 mm, a density equal to 1.60 g / cm3, as well as a low content of clay, dust and other impurities. The last in the composition should not be more than 0.03%.
Sand quarry, whose price per cubic meterwill be 2200 rubles., It is used not only in construction, but also in decoration, as well as the national economy. Especially cost-effective use of such sand in the production of concrete and brick, as well as in road and housing construction.
Sand quarry, the price for which will be 2300rubles, can be presented in the form of a material with a fraction ranging from 2.5 to 2.7 mm. In the production of high-strength concrete and reinforced concrete structures, recycled quarry sand of coarse fraction is usually used. Career material goes to the masonry and the manufacture of paving slabs.
Technical characteristics of river pre-mix sand and features of its extraction
The river pumice sand has a density of 1.5 kg / m3. If we are talking about the density in the statenatural humidity, this figure will be reduced to 1.45. The composition may contain pulverous particles, silty and clayey elements, but not more than in a volume of 0.7% by weight. The moisture content of the material is 4%, while the specific gravity is 2.6 g / cm3. These types of sand are extracted usingdredger, which is fixed on the barge. Such equipment is supplemented with hydromechanical installations, powerful pumps, networks and reservoirs for dividing the material by composition. The extraction of sand from the channels of dried up rivers is like mining quarry sand.
Almost all varieties of sand can be attributed tothe first class of radioactivity. As an exception, only crushed sands. If we talk about the other varieties, then they are radiation-safe and can be used in all construction works without restrictions.
The use of sand is quite common today. For example, its quartz version is used for manufacturing general and special-purpose welding materials. As for the building variety, it is used to obtain structural coatings, mixing with the dyes. Sands are also used for finishing works, as well as for repairing premises. The material also appears as a component of asphalt concrete mixtures, which are used in the laying of roads and during construction.