Vowel and consonant letters and phonetic analysis of the word
The most important part of speech are words, we pronounce them, we write and read them, we add phrases and sentences out of them. They consist of letters and sounds that have so firmly entered our lives that we hardly notice them.
Letters and sounds are not the same thing, although they are closely interrelated concepts. The letters we write, see and read, and the sounds - we pronounce and hear. Letters are graphic writing symbols, while sounds are the acoustic component of words and human speech as a whole. Different words sometimes correspond to the same letter in different words.
“In the beginning was the word. Then words, words, words ... "(auth. Vladimir Kolechitsky).
"The word given to man is not for self-gratification, but for the embodiment and transmission of that thought, that feeling, that portion of truth and inspiration that he possesses - to other people."(auth. V. Korolenko).
The study of letters and sounds involved in various sections of language science. Sounds studyingphoneticsand alphabetic charactersgraphic arts. Spelling letters prerogativespelling.
The set of letters of any language is its alphabet. The letters of the Russian language are divided into consonants, vowels and auxiliary. Auxiliary are non-sound information - hard and soft sign.
Consonants and sounds of the Russian alphabet
Consonants and letters are characterized by the fact that during their pronouncement a certain obstacle arises in the path of the air in the mouth. As a result, noise is necessarily present in the acoustic sound of the consonants. They got the name “consonants” because they almost always stand next to vowels or in the same word with them.
A total of 21 consonant letters in Russian:
Another characteristic feature of consonants is that they cannot be chanted. The pronunciation of hissing consonants can be stretched (for example:,,,), but the “singing” will not work.
As noted above, consonants in words are almost always side by side with vowels. However, there are a limited number of words that consist only of consonants. Along with prepositions, or a particle, these are some foreign names of their own (- the district of Prague; the Armenian nameMkrtchwhich in Russian is sometimes written with a vowel - for euphony), as well as interjections of the type or.
Classification of consonants letters and sounds in the Russian language is based on acoustic criteria.
Voiced and deaf consonants
Those consonants whose pronunciation consists only of noise are called deaf. In contrast, consonants formed by sound and noise are called voiced.
The letter (and brief) stands apart. According to the acoustic sound, it is referred to as voiced consonants, however, its isolated pronunciation is impossible. The letter can be pronounced only together with the preceding or subsequent vowel sound, for example, etc.
Paired and unpaired consonants
Most voiced consonants correspond to certain deaf. Such consonant letters are calledpaired. There are consonants that do not have a pair. Among them there are also deaf and ringing ones, and they are calledunpaired.Paired ringing and deafUnpaired ringingUnpaired deaf
Soft and hard consonants
The pronunciation of consonants in words can be hard or soft. If the sound is pronounced softly, then the tongue moves forward slightly, approaching the upper palate or touching it.When pronouncing hard sounds, the advancement of the tongue does not occur (but the tongue may touch the upper palate due to the upward movement).
Most consonant letters form both hard and soft sounds, but there are some exceptions. In particular, the letters,, always have a solid sound, and the letters,, - are soft.
In other cases, the hardness or softness of the consonants is determined by which letter follows them.
If the consonant is accompanied by the letters,,,,, then a hard sound is obtained. The same if the consonant is at the end of a word or after it comes another consonant.
If the consonant is accompanied by the letters,,,,, - then its sound will be soft.
Hissing and whistling consonants
Some of the consonants in the Russian language in pronunciation resemble hissing. These are the sounds,,, that are called hissing consonants.
Another group of consonants at the exit from the oral cavity forms acoustic oscillations that resemble whistling. These are sounds, - whistling.
Especially noticeable properties of hissing and whistling consonants with their long pronunciation.
One of the important features of these sounds is that it is with their pronunciation that most of the speech defects are associated.For this reason, work with hissing and whistling consonants should be given special attention when teaching children. It is important to note that the shortcomings of speech associated with these sounds may be amenable to speech therapy correction.
Vowel Russian letters and sounds
Unlike consonants sounds and letters, a characteristic feature of vowels is that the air, when they are pronounced, passes through the mouth cavity freely. As a result, vowel sounds can be not only easily stretched, but also chanted. Another distinctive feature is that they can be pronounced as loudly as you like, to the full force of the voice.
Through vowels and sounds, consonants are connected in syllables. Each syllable has only one vowel. The number of other letters - consonants, hard and soft signs - can be different. Words may consist of one or several syllables:growth letter, breaking, ,picture.
Number of vowels in Russian - 10:
And there are only 6 vowel sounds:,,,,,. The corresponding vowels are monotonous. The remaining 4 vowels -,,, - are two-sound, and are separately pronounced as,,,. At the same time, in words these letters mean one sound (examples: squirrel, ball, went, key).
As in the case of consonants, there is a certain number of Russian words consisting only of vowel sounds. These are pronouns -,; unions -,; prepositions -; interjections -,.
Shock and unstressed vowels
In words, vowel sounds can be percussive and unstressed.
- If the vowel in the word is under the stress, it is read more clearly, with a greater accent and a little more protractedly.
- In the absence of stress, vowels in words are read less clearly. Accordingly, the unstressed position is a weak position for them, and the position in the stressed syllable is a strong position.
As a rule, in traditional writing, stress is not indicated in words. If necessary, they are denoted by the “acute” sign - a small “/” stroke above the vowel letter.
The designation of sounds in the phonetic analysis of the word
Phonetic or sound analysis of the word serves to display and parse its correct pronunciation. Both words and individual letters can be phonetically denoted.
The designations of sounds, unlike letters, are enclosed in square brackets. A graphic record of the pronunciation of the word is called transcription.
The basic rules, according to which the sounds in the phonetic analysis of the word are indicated, are as follows:
- The hardness of the consonants does not have any designation, but the softness is displayed by the apostrophe sign. For example, if - a solid sound, then - soft.
- A long sound in the transcription is indicated by a colon, for example:cashbox—[cc: a].
- Not always, but often in the transcription of words emphasized. For example:wave—[valna].
- A soft sign and a hard sign do not have sound pronunciation, therefore there is no display in phonetic analysis.
How to teach children to distinguish between hard and soft sounds
Sometimes children may have difficulty distinguishing between hard and soft consonants. In this case, there are some techniques that facilitate the assimilation of the topic.
First of all, you need to explain to the child that the concepts of hardness and softness are not related to consonant letters, but to their sounds. And that the same letter can sound both hard and soft. I will give an example: "" - the words ram - white, "" - work - belt, "" - horse - swan.
Explaining letters-exceptions, for better memorization, it is recommended to write them like this:
It is necessary to make it clear to the child that the underlined letters seem to be “sitting on the pads” - the pads are soft and the letters are also soft.
In order for the child to remember well before which vowels the letter becomes hard or soft, you can use the following technique: first, with a serious facial expression, read a syllable with a firm consonant - and then, with a smile on your face, read another syllable, where this consonant is soft. Then do the same with other letters and syllables. For example: -, -, -, -, -, etc. A soft pronunciation is well associated with a child with a smile, and a hard one - with seriousness and severity, which allows you to remember the material in an associative way.
Gradually, you need to improve your skills, and do the same exercises with simple words, such as:, a, and so on. As you memorize, you should move from simple words to more complex ones. Explanations and exercises should be alternated with tasks one by one: write the words and then ask which consonants are hard and which are soft.
Another exercise can be proposed: to make tablets with words in which soft consonants are written in one color and solid ones in another. For example:
There are many options, but it is desirable to choose among them those that are more like a child. This contributes to a better perception of the material, its memorization and practical assimilation.
Some interesting and useful information.
- Sounds and words can be formed without human intervention. A well-known example is the pronouncing of words by birds of the parrot family. As for the individual sounds, they can appear in inanimate nature - with the rustling of leaves, gusts of wind, splashing waves. This can not be said about the letters - after all, only a meaningful spelling can be recognized as a letter designation, and this is characteristic only of people.
- Despite the small number of words consisting only of vowels, one can make a sentence of them: “Eh, and me?”
- Almost all the words of the Russian language containing the letter "" are of foreign origin. Only with regard to rare words (for example, an eagle owl) is Russian origin supposed to be, but it has not been proven for sure.
- All words beginning with the letter “” are also foreign-language. For example: iodine, yogurt, iota, Yemen, Yokohama, Yorkshire, etc.
- The letter "" in words almost always bears the stress. There are very few exceptions to this rule - these are words of foreign origin (königsburg surfers), as well as complex words, which include the numerals of three or four - (twenty-three,four-double,three thousandth).Also noteworthy are the rare situations in which one letter contains two letters “one”, one of which becomes a shock, and the other is unstressed (three star,four-wheeled,airplane lift,truncheon).
- There are many words in Russian with unusual letter combinations. For example, words in which the same vowel is repeated three times in a row:snake eat,zoo unification,long necked. Word with 7 consonants in a row:counter meeting(perhaps,occasionalism). Words with three soft signs:seductiveness,diminution,multifunctionality,seductivenessetc. A word with two soft and one hard signs:courier. Monosyllabic word of 8 letters:in passing. There are many other interesting examples.
- Any letter has a certain frequency of repetitions, the most used letters in Russian are,,,,,,,. This phenomenon is used to recognize ciprograms.
Knowledge of letters and sounds, their spelling and pronunciation is the basis of language literacy. In turn, a good command of the spoken and written language is one of the indicators of a person’s knowledge, and the skills of reading and understanding the text are the basis for learning other sciences.Indeed, the lion's share of information in the modern world is comprehended by reading or listening, and only a small part of it is through personal experience.
In addition, the linguistic speech, which forms the second signal system, as well as everything connected with it — hearing, reading, writing — is one of the main differences between humans and animals. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of phenomena based on language acquisition. This process continues almost all his life, but it begins with an acquaintance with letters, sounds and syllables in his early childhood.