What is sarcoma?
Sarcoma is a rather rare type of malignant tumor, which makes up only 1% of all cases of the appearance of malignant neoplasms.
In this article we will describe in detail what sarcoma is, what types of sarcoma exist and what its treatment should be.
Meaning of term
Sarcoma is the definition for a large group of malignant tumors. Sarcoma can occur in bones or in connective tissues (in blood vessels, in fibrous and nervous tissues, in tendons, in smooth and skeletal muscles, etc.).
The causes of sarcomas have not yet been established. Scientists are talking only about factors that increase the risk of such diseases. These factors include:
- chemical poisoning
- bad heredity
- accumulation in the body of polyvinyl chloride, chlorophenol or dioxin,
- weakened immunity
- previous cancer treatment.
Varieties of sarcomas very much. In total, there are about 160 varieties of soft tissue sarcomas and 40 varieties of hard tissue sarcomas. They are divided into the following groups:
Bone tissue sarcoma
Sarcomas of this group occur more frequently in the bones of the knee and shoulder bones. The most common type is osteosarcoma, in which malignant cells come from bone tissue and produce this tissue themselves. In addition, this group also includes chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, malignant fibrogistiocytoma of bone tissue, fibrosarcoma, angiosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, adamatinoma and a number of other diseases.
Soft tissue sarcoma of the limbs and trunk
Diseases of this group in 45% of cases affect the lower limbs, 20% of cases of the disease occur in the stomach and retroperitoneal space, 20% in the head, neck and internal female genital organs, and the rest in the abdominal cavity and chest. This includes such types of sarcomas as liposarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, synovial sarcoma, angioblastoma, malignant tumor of peripheral nerve trunks, hemangiopericytoma, etc.
Sarcomas of the soft tissues of the abdomen and pelvis
Here there is another division of diseases at the place of education for sarcoma:
- Retroperitoneal (histological subtypes of liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, pleomorphic sarcoma, etc.).
- Intraperitoneal or visceral (malignant stromal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract).
- Gynecological (endometrial stromal sarcoma).
- The wall of the abdominal cavity (synovial sarcoma, towering, etc.).
In the treatment of sarcoma, an important point is the diagnosis, which should establish not only the fact of the presence of cancer, but also the degree of its severity. Treatment of sarcomas, as well as any other malignant tumors, may involve surgery, treatment with radiation and chemotherapy, as well as the newly developed virotherapy.